Glossary

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z All
Safety Belt Energy Management Retractors
See page 5-10 in the Safety section of this book.
Safety Belts
System of belts or harnesses designed to restrain and help reduce the risk of injury to occupants in the event of side, rear, rollover or frontal collisions. Refer to the Safety section of this book for details concerning Ford safety belt systems.
Safety Cell Construction
  • Integrated body structure designed to work as a system to provide protection for occupants. Its major design features include:
  • Front-end structure with a reinforced sub frame to provide energy absorption
  • Cross cowl beam that helps provide an additional mounting point for the steering column and airbag mountings, reducing their movement in the event of a frontal impact
  • High-strength side door intrusion beams
  • Sheet metal at the front and rear corners that collapses progressively and predictably to dissipate some of the energy of an impact
Seats, Hi-back
Back of this individual seat is about as high as the top of the occupant’s head. It tapers in from shoulder height to form an integral head restraint.
Section Modulus
Measure of the strength of frame side rails determined by the cross-section area and shape of the side rails. When comparing frames of the same material, the one with the largest section modulus will be the strongest. When comparing frames of different materials, the frame with the highest Resisting Bending Moment (RBM) has the greater strength.
Self-adjusting Clutch
Optional self-adjusting clutch, once installed, does not have to be adjusted again. When the release bearing travel exceeds 1/2-inch, the self-adjusting mechanism returns the clutch and pedal free play to normal operating conditions as the clutch pedal is actuated. A self-adjusting clutch eliminates eight to ten clutch adjustments over the life of a clutch.
Sequential Multi-port Electronic Fuel Injection (SEFI)
Specific type of multi-port injection that delivers fuel in more precisely timed pulses corresponding to the opening of each intake valve. SEFI takes advantage of the atomized fuel spray from the injectors to achieve a more precise combustion for better performance, often with improved fuel economy.
Shock Absorber
  • Provides mechanical or hydraulic friction to control deflection of automobile springs
  • Oil in the shocks is forced through small passages to absorb the force of a road shock
  • Pressurized gas is used in many shock absorbers to prevent aeration of the oil. This reduces the tendency of the shock to overheat on rough road surfaces
Short- and Long-Arm (SLA) Suspension
  • Independent design that allows either wheel to react to road imperfections with minimal effect on the opposite wheel. Several distinct advantages over MacPherson struts include camber control, turning geometry and lower component package height. These advantages permit a lower hood line. Major design features include:
  • Gas-pressurized shock absorbers to maintain optimum ride control over a variety of road surfaces
  • Control arms to help absorb braking and acceleration forces
  • Coil springs or torsion bars (on select vehicles)
Single Overhead Camshaft (SOHC) Design
Engine design with the camshaft located atop the cylinder head, operating both the intake and exhaust valves. SOHC V6 and V8 engines, which are designed with cylinders in two banks, have a total of two cams, one for each cylinder head. The one cam in each head operates the intake and exhaust valves, resulting in improved performance and fuel efficiency. All engines using the overhead cam design offer the potential for greater power output and higher engine speeds (rpm) when compared with overhead valve designs.
SIRIUS® Travel Link™(1)
  • Real-time traffic information
  • Provides incident, speed and flow information for 80 major cities in the continental U.S.
  • Updates every 2.5 minutes
  • View graphical overlay of incidents
  • Route recalculation based on traffic data
  • Real-time weather information
  • Provides current weather and 5-day forecast reports that are updated every 5 minutes
  • Current conditions update every 30 minutes
  • Region of interest can be defined by customer
  • Fuel pricing
  • Search for pricing en route or based on current location for over 120,000 gas stations
  • Displays pricing for regular, mid-grade and premium when available
  • Diesel pricing displayed where available
  • Sports updates and movie listings
  • Score summaries and schedules for major sports
  • Updates every 5 minutes
  • User can personalize for favorite teams
  • Movie listings for over 4,500 theatres, including times, movie summary and directions to the theater
Skid pad
Large, flat expanse of smooth pavement used for various handling tests, e.g., road holding. Generally, road holding is measured as the highest speed a vehicle can maintain without losing adhesion while maintaining the given diameter of a large circle (e.g., 250 feet, 300 feet, etc.) or the g-force generated at that speed.
Skid Plate
Deflector plate under a vehicle that helps provide protection from off-road debris. Transfer case and fuel tank skid plates are common on Ford 4x4 vehicles.
Slack Adjusters (automatic/manual)
  • All Ford air brake trucks come equipped with automatic slack adjusters
  • When properly maintained, slack adjusters retain accurate shoe-to-drum clearances (slack)
  • This promotes even brake wear, reducing brake downtime and expense
  • Properly adjusted brakes are a plus factor for vehicle safety
Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE)
The organization that sets American automotive standards for automotive measurements, including horsepower, torque and lubricants.
Split-port Induction (SPI)
  • Most split-port induction systems have a dual-runner engine intake design promoting high-volume/high-velocity airflow to increase engine performance.
  • Dual-runner design features long, small-diameter runners tuned for low engine rpm torque and short, large-diameter runners tuned for high rpm horsepower
  • Runner usage is controlled by the electronic engine controls and integral throttle-body valves
  • SPI engines use a cylinder head with two runners per cylinder. These runners carry the air charge to the intake side of the combustion chamber. At lower engine speeds, the air charge is directed through a narrow pathway that results in a higher air velocity, quickening engine response. As engine speed increases above 3000 rpm, the second path works to further enhance engine power and operating efficiency
Spring Rating
  • Any one of several methods of describing spring ratings currently used in the light truck industry, including:
  • Rating at Pad — The amount of weight above the pad that can actually be supported by the springs, including the chassis, body and payload weights
  • Rating at Ground — Includes the Rating at Pad plus the weight of components between the spring and ground (axle, brakes, tires and wheels)
  • Sprung Weight — The weight of those components supported by the spring, such as the frame, engine, body, payload, etc.
  • Unsprung Weight — The portion of the weight of the chassis (i.e., axle, wheels, tires, brakes, etc.) not supported by the springs, as well as one-half the weight of the springs and drive shaft
Stabilizer Bar
Bar or tube that provides added support for suspension members to minimize body lean or roll. The stabilizer is transversely mounted and used at the front and/or rear suspension to resist unequal vertical motion across the width of the vehicle.
Steering Systems
  • Rack-and-pinion
  • Essentially, a rack-and-pinion system as described previously with a power-assist feature reducing steering effort
  • Major design features include:– Rack-and-pinion gears that are engineered for low turning effort, good return ability and handling– Lightweight power steering pump– Power assist
  • Speed-sensitive, Variable-assist Steering
  • Major design features include:– A microprocessor-controlled system that electronically varies the assist based on signals received from vehicle speed sensors. This sophisticated system provides improved maneuverability with maximum assist at low speeds, such as when parking– Decreases assist at highway speeds to provide improved road feel
  • Manual Recirculating Ball-and-nut
  • Uses a worm gear surrounded by ball bearings that travel in a recirculating track
  • Performs well in isolating the driver from the feedback of uneven road surfaces
  • Power Recirculating Ball-and-nut
  • Major design features include:– Linkage steering gear forward of the front wheel axis that combines with a lightweight steering pump for maximum assist when turning the wheel– Power assist for low-speed turning and parking
Stroke
Maximum distance traveled by a piston between bottom-dead-center (BDC) and top-dead-center (TDC). If the stroke is increased, the displacement increases and vice versa.
Strut
Suspension element that uses a reinforced shock absorber as one of the wheel’s locating members, typically by solidly connecting the wheel hub to the bottom of the strut.
Sub frame
Partial frame that connects the vehicle’s power train and front suspension or rear components to its underbody.
Sub frame, Isolated
  • Attaches to the front or rear structure of some Ford vehicles
  • Provides support for the engine, transmission and often the suspension
  • Provides added strength and rigidity to the vehicle’s construction
  • Uses rubber mounts to reduce levels of noise, vibration and harshness
Supercharger
  • Supercharger is a large air pump that is normally mounted on the engine intake manifold and belt-driven by the crankshaft
  • Most superchargers contain two impellers that compress the incoming air charge
  • Advantage of compressing the intake air is that you allow more air to enter each cylinder. The engine’s fuel control computer then adds more fuel to compensate for the added air, increasing the power and torque output of the engine
  • Typical boost provided by a supercharger is 6 to 8 pounds per square inch (psi)
Suspension Systems — Front
  • The springs, torsion bars, shock absorbers, linkages and locating members acting together to control motions caused by tires passing over uneven road surfaces to reduce the effect on the vehicle body.
  • MacPherson Strut
  • Focus, Edge, Taurus, Taurus X, Mustang, Escape and Escape Hybrid
  • Type of suspension layout in which a coil spring is positioned over a shock-absorbing strut with fewer parts and less weight than conventional suspension systems
  • Monobeam Twin-Coil
  • F-250/F-350 4x4 Pickups, F-450 Pickup, F-350 4x4 Chassis Cabs and F-450/F-550 Chassis Cabs
  • Solid non-independent suspension. The axle is located and attached to the frame by extremely robust radius arms. The use of coil springs allows for improved damping and ride comfort as well as improved steering geometry
  • Monobeam
  • F-650/F-750 Chassis Cabs, Ford LCF
  • Solid non-independent suspension usually used on medium-duty four-wheel-drive trucks attached to the frame by leaf springs and to the wheels by kingpins. Also serves as the front axle on these applications
  • Short- and Long-Arm (SLA)
  • Fusion, Ranger, F-150, Explorer, Sport Trac and Expedition
  • Independent design that allows either wheel to react to road imperfections with minimal effect on the opposite wheel. Design features include:– Shock absorbers to maintain ride control (gas pressurized on select vehicles)– Upper and lower control arms to absorb acceleration and braking forces– Coil springs or torsion bars
  • Twin I-Beam
  • E-Series, F-250/F-350 4x2 Pickups and F-350 4x2 Chassis Cab
  • Independent front suspension that uses two parallel I-Beams with one end connected to each wheel and the other fixed to the frame
  • Design combines the superior strength of a solid I-Beam suspension, with the flexibility and ride comfort of a fully independent suspension
Suspension Systems — Rear
  • Air Suspension
  • F-650/F-750 Chassis Cabs
  • Air suspension system replaces the leaf springs or coil springs with reinforced rubber airbags or bladders
  • Airbags are located between the frame and axle and provide the weight-carrying capacity of the rear axle
  • Air spring suspensions provide a smoother, more compliant ride than typical leaf spring suspensions
  • Multi-link
  • Taurus and Taurus X use an independent design that is mounted on U-shaped sub frame. Upper and lower control arms with gas-pressurized shock absorbers mounted in a coil-over-shock design. Stabilizer bar reduces body lean while cornering
  • Fusion and the Edge use an independent design that is mounted to a sub frame and works like a double-wishbone setup. Twist-blade control arms with gas-pressurized shock absorbers, coil springs and a stabilizer bar
  • Expedition uses a second-generation independent design with five-link design for better control of fore/aft and lateral load forces, monotube shocks which allow for more precise tuning and a better ride, and a stabilizer bar with high-precision bushings and low-friction ball joint links for improved on-center steering feel. Porthole in-frame design, with axle shafts passing through the frame rails, provides a lower step-in height and a lower center of gravity
  • Rigid Axle
  • Mustang, Ranger, all F-Series Pickups and Chassis Cabs, E-Series and Ford LCF
  • Also known as a solid or live axle
  • Non-independent suspension that uses an axle which runs nearly the width of the vehicle– On trucks, the axle is located by leaf springs. Gas-pressurized shock absorbers help provide a smooth ride– On Mustang, the axle is located with coil springs, one upper and two lower control arms. Gas-pressurized shock absorbers help provide a smooth ride
  • Short- and Long-Arm (SLA)
  • Focus
  • Independent design that allows either wheel to react to road imperfections with minimal effect on the opposite wheel. Design features include:– Shock absorbers to maintain ride control (gas pressurized on select vehicles)– Upper and lower control arms to absorb acceleration and braking force– Coil springs or torsion bars
  • Trailing Arm
  • Explorer and Sport Trac
  • Independent design uses trailing blade with coil-over-shocks to help provide precise handling and minimize ride harshness, porthole-in-frame design with axle shafts passing through the frame rails and a stabilizer bar for improved on-center feel
  • Double Lateral Link and Semi-trailing Arm
  • Escape and Escape Hybrid
  • Independent suspension that uses one trailing arm and two lateral links per side
  • Shock absorbers and coil springs provide a smooth ride Load-leveling
  • Expedition
  • Suspension that uses rear air springs, an air compressor and electronic components to help keep the vehicle level when towing a trailer or hauling heavy loads.
  • Multi-leaf Rear Spring
  • Ranger, all F-Series, E-Series and Ford LCF
  • Spring built from superimposed, narrow flat-sectioned plates or blades that resist load in bending
  • Spring operates in conjunction with a solid axle suspension as a system that includes the wheels being mounted to a rigid beam axle. Major design features include:– Parabolic tapered leaf springs that react to differing loads, providing a smooth ride regardless of load conditions– Leaves which are actually long flat bars that are bracket-mounted at each end and arc in the center to provide the necessary stiffness– Leaf number that will differ from truck to truck, depending on individual load ratings– Many trucks have two-stage, variable-rate leaf springs, with the first set of leaves handling most requirements. The shorter, second set reacts under heavy load or suspension demands as required
Sync
  • Ford and Microsoft have teamed up to develop Ford SYNC®. This exclusive technology will change the way customers use their digital media and Bluetooth®(1) wireless technology enabled mobile phones. SYNC allows drivers to stay connected to the information, entertainment and people they care about while on the road. (1) The Bluetooth word mark and logos are trademarks of the Bluetooth, SIG, Inc. SYNC features:
  • Voice-activated(2) hands-free calling with advanced calling features like caller ID, call waiting, conference calling (2) Driving while distracted can result in loss of vehicle control. Only use mobile phones and other devices, even with voice commands, when it is safe to do so.
  • Uninterrupted connections that allow going directly from cell phone to the vehicle’s hands-free phone during the call
  • Voice-controlled media player
  • Audible text messages
  • Instant voice recognition and ring tone support
  • Automatic phone book transfer for mobile phones with this feature
  • Multilingual intelligence (English, French, Spanish)Some 2009 Ford vehicles (mid-model introduction) equipped with SYNC will also include 911 Assist and Vehicle Health Report as new/additional features.911 Assist
  • If an airbag deploys in a 911 Assist-equipped vehicle, SYNC will place a call to the local 911 emergency operator
  • SYNC makes the call on a properly paired, turned on and Bluetooth-enabled mobile phone
  • There is a 10-second delay before the call is placed, allowing a vehicle occupant to cancel the call if 911 is not needed Vehicle Health Report (VHR)
  • On demand, or at set mileage intervals, SYNC will gather diagnostic information and send it to Ford via a Bluetooth-enabled and paired mobile phone
  • A text message regarding critical vehicle concerns can be immediately sent to the owner with properly set SYNC preferences
  • Owners can also view their complete VHR at syncmyride.com, including diagnostics, maintenance, recalls and Multipoint Inspection items and make any repair or maintenance appointments as needed
Synchromesh
  • Synchromesh clutch is typically a drum or sleeve that slides back and forth on a splined output shaft by means of a shifting fork
  • Generally, it has a bronze cone on each side that engages with a tapered mating cone. When this drum, or sleeve, is moved along the output shaft, the cone acts as a clutch
  • Upon contacting the gear that is to be engaged, the output shaft is sped up or slowed down as required until the speeds of the output shaft and the gear are synchronized, or are “in sync” with each other
Synchronized Gears
  • Synchronized gears are used in manual transmissions to facilitate the meshing of two gears by causing the speed of both gears to coincide
  • This helps move clutch assemblies to the specific chosen gear
  • A synchronizer will help prevent an improper shift that could damage the transmission, such as shifting into first gear at highway speeds

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1. Starting MSRP excludes destination/delivery charge, taxes, title and registration. Optional equipment not included. Starting A, Z and X Plan price is for qualified, eligible customers and excludes document fee, destination/delivery charge, taxes, title and registration. Not all vehicles qualify for A, Z or X Plan. Price ranges based on MSRP on base model to top model and do not include optional equipment not included on those models, destination/delivery charge, taxes, title or registration.
2. EPA-estimated city/hwy mpg for the model indicated. See fueleconomy.gov for fuel economy of other engine/transmission combinations. Actual mileage will vary. On plug-in hybrid models and electric models, fuel economy is stated in MPGe. MPGe is the EPA equivalent measure of gasoline fuel efficiency for electric mode operation.
3. When properly equipped.
4. Option/Package price based on Manufacturers Suggest Retail Price excluding taxes based on 5% APR Ford credit financing financed over 60 months. Not all buyers will qualify for Ford Credit financing.
5. The Estimated Selling Price of vehicle less cash back, rebates, and net trade in allowance. It does not include amounts for fees, sales tax, service contracts, etc. Consult your dealer for actual price and complete details.
6. Special APR offers applied to Estimated Selling Price. Special APR offers require Ford Credit Financing. Not all buyers will qualify. See dealer for qualifications and complete details.
7. Special Lease offers applied to Estimated Capitalized Cost. Special Lease offers require Ford Credit Financing. Not all buyers will qualify. See dealer for qualifications and complete details.
8. See your dealer for details.
9. Option/Package price based on A, Z, or X Plan price for qualified, eligible A, Z, or X Plan customers excluding taxes based on 5% APR Ford credit financing financed over 60 months. Not all buyers will qualify for Ford Credit financing.
10. Driver Assist Features (BLIS, cross traffic alert, collision warning, active park assist, adaptive cruise control, and rear view camera) are supplemental and do not replace the driver’s attention, judgment and need to control the vehicle.
15. Classes are:  Compact Cars (Fiesta); Small Sedans and Hatchbacks (Focus); Midsize Sedans (Fusion); Full-Size Sedans (Taurus); RWD Sports Cars (Mustang); Small Utilities (Escape); Midsize Utilities (Edge); Large Utilities (Flex and Explorer); Extended Utilities (Expedition); Full-Size Pickups under 8,500 lbs. GVWR, Non-Hybrid (F-150); Full-Size Pickups over 8,500 lbs. GVWR (Super Duty).
16. EPA-estimated Fiesta SE with SFE Package; Focus SE with SFE Package. Actual mileage may vary. See fueleconomy.gov for details.
17. Excludes models with SYNC with MyFord Touch.
18. Only on vehicles equipped with SYNC with MyFord Touch.
19. See fueleconomy.gov.
20. For Dealer Ordered vehicles, the vehicle has already been ordered by the dealer and is in the process of being manufactured by the factory. If you are interested in the vehicle marked "Dealer Ordered", contact the dealership for a delivery estimate.
21. On the F-750
22. Based on Ford drive-cycle tests of comparably equipped 2011/2012 Ford and 2011/2012 competitive models. Class is Full-Size Pickups over 8,500 lbs. GVWR.
27. SYNC is available on most Ford vehicles. Features/functionality vary by vehicle/model. Driving while distracted can result in loss of vehicle control. Only use SYNC/MyFord Touch/other devices, even with voice commands, when it is safe to do so. Some features may be locked out while the vehicle is in gear. Traffic alerts and turn-by-turn directions available in select markets. Not all features are compatible with all phones. Message and data rates may apply.
28. The vehicle's electrical system (including the battery), the wireless service provider's signal and a connected mobile phone must all be available and operating for 911 Assist to function properly. These systems may become damaged in a crash. The paired mobile phone must be connected to SYNC, and the 911 Assist feature enabled, in order for 911 to be dialed. When the feature is ON, 911 Assist uses your paired and connected mobile phone to assist occupants to contact emergency services by dialing 911 if your airbag deploys or, on certain vehicles, if the emergency fuel pump shut-off is activated.
34. Optional. SiriusXM Satellite Radio, Traffic and Travel Link subscriptions sold separately or as a package after trial expires. SiriusXM Traffic and Travel Link service available in select markets. Subscriptions are governed by SiriusXM Customer Agreement; see www.siriusxm.com. Sirius U.S. Satellite Service available in the 48 contiguous states and D.C. Sirius, XM and all related marks and logos are trademarks of Sirius XM Radio Inc.
36. Optional Ford Work Solutions. Available on F-Series, E-Series, Transit Connect and Super Duty. Some features unavailable while driving.
39. Remember that even advanced technology cannot overcome the laws of physics. It's always possible to lose control of a vehicle due to inappropriate driver input for the conditions.
42. Based on analysis of data published by EPA, 11/10. Actual mileage may vary.
43. Android is a trademark of Google Inc. iPhone® is a registered trademarks of Apple Inc. The BlackBerry and RIM families of related marks, images and symbols are the exclusive properties and trademarks of Research In Motion Limited.
48. You must have a Bluetooth®-enabled phone paired to your SYNC system. The Bluetooth word mark is a trademark of the Bluetooth SIG, Inc. HD Radio is a proprietary trademark of iBiquity Digital Corp. iPad®, iPod® and iTunes® are registered trademarks of Apple Inc. The term Wi-Fi® is a registered trademark of the Wi-Fi Alliance®. Sony is a registered trademark of the Sony Corporation.
49. Only on vehicles with SYNC® with MyFord Touch® with voice activated Navigation system or SYNC with hard drive-based voice activated Navigation system. Commands may vary by model year.
52. Google Maps is a trademark of Google, Inc. MapQuest is a trademark of AOL Inc.
53. PANDORA, the PANDORA logo, and the Pandora trade dress are trademarks or registered trademarks of Pandora Media, Inc. Used with permission. iHeartAuto is a registered trademark of Clear Channel Broadcasting, Inc. Slacker® is a registered trademark of Slacker®, Inc. Stitcher Smart Radio is a registered trademark of Stitcher, Inc. NPR and the NPR logo are registered trademarks of National Public Radio, Inc. Used with permission. Gracenote is a registered trademark of Gracenote, Inc.
63. SYNC® AppLink™ is available on select models and compatible with select smartphone platforms. SYNC AppLink is not compatible with MyFord Touch. Commands may vary by phone and AppLink software.
64. 20 Operator Assist sessions included with each one-year paid/complimentary SYNC Services subscription. Fees apply for additional sessions. See syncmyride.com.
67. EPA-estimated 17 city/25 hwy/20 combined mpg, AWD. Actual mileage may vary. Figures achieved using premium unleaded gasoline.
68. Achieved with premium fuel.
129. SYNC Services varies by trim level and model year and may require a subscription. Traffic alerts and turn-by-turn directions available in select markets. Message and data rates may apply. Ford Motor Company reserves the right to change or discontinue this product service at any time without prior notification or incurring any future obligation.
159. All prices are manufactures suggested retail prices and exclude destination/delivery charge, taxes, title and registration. Optional equipment not included. Prices may not reflect all equipment shown in images. Dealers are the best source for up-to-date pricing.
160. 160 Models produced or recalibrated after 7/8/2013.
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